The experiential offering system of museums: evidence from Italy

di Tonino Pencarelli, Emanuela Conti, Simone Splendiani

in Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development



Il ruolo della Bandiera Arancione per la valorizzazione dei piccoli comuni dell’entroterra

di Tonino Pencarelli, Claudia Fraboni and Simone Splendiani

Il capitale culturale – Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage (PDF)


Obiettivo del lavoro è illustrare l’efficacia dei marchi ambientali nella valorizzazione dei piccoli comuni dell’entroterra, sia dal punto di vista della comunicazione turistica che da quello della qualità del territorio. La ricerca si focalizza sulla Regione Marche. Si analizzano le modalità di sfruttamento e valorizzazione del marchio Bandiera Arancione di tutti i comuni che hanno ricevuto il riconoscimento, oltre che la percezione degli enti locali circa le performance turistico-ambientali conseguite grazie ad esso. L’indagine è stata svolta somministrando un questionario (metodo CAWI) ai referenti dei 19 comuni Bandiera Arancione 2014. Dallo studio emerge come essi non sfruttino appieno le potenzialità offerte dalla certificazione, sia in termini di co-branding che di coinvolgimento degli stakeholders, ma riconoscano, tuttavia, l’importanza strategica rispetto alle finalità che l’adesione a Bandiera Arancione si propone di raggiungere a beneficio del territorio.

The main purpose of this paper was to determine the extent to which environmental awards may help enhancing the small-towns heritage. Focus was set on the Orange Flag to understand if municipalities properly take advantage of the award both in their communication policies and in the sustainable development of their territory. The survey was based on a questionnaire (CAWI method) forwarded to the 2014 Orange. Flag municipalities in the Marche region. The research revealed that municipalities do not take full advantage of the possibilities provided by the award mainly in terms of co-branding and stakeholders’ involvement. Even if they recognize great validity to the programme, the findings raised in this paper suggest a more effi cient use of the award. In particular, a better use of co-branding policies and a wider sharing of sustainability issues are suggested.

The sustainable management of museum: an italian perspective

by Tonino Pencarelli, Mara Cerquetti and Simone Splendiani

Tourism and Hospitality Management, Vol 22 No,1


Purpose – The theme of sustainability in museums has not been sufficiently explored in the international literature on cultural heritage management as well as few museums are already involved in programs to promote sustainable development. Considering this gap, the purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, to provide a conceptual model applying the principles of sustainable development to the enhancement of cultural heritage and, secondly, to analyze the case of Marche Region.

Design – After analysing the three dimensions of sustainability – environmental, social and economic – and their possible application to museum management, the research tested the theoretical assumptions through an exploratory qualitative/ quantitative survey.

Methodology –The structured questionnaire was submitted to a sample of museums and consisted of a wide range of questions, primarily, although not exclusively, quantitative, which examined both museum management and sustainability orientation.

Approach – The analysis focused on two different dimensions: the first aimed at understanding the perception of sustainability and the value of its components, the second aimed at investigating museums’ willingness and reasons to engage in concrete sustainability-oriented actions.

Finding – The field research showed Marche Region’s museums have a full awareness of the benefits of sustainable management. However, the lack of a managerial approach to the museums’ development compromises their ability to transfer this orientation in operational policies.

Originality of research – The paper provides a multidimensional model for measuring the level of museum sustainability, able to analyze cultural and behavioral components. This analysis identifies possible areas of intervention for regional policies aimed at improving sustainability orientation of museums.

Management and marketing approaches for enhancing the cultural heritage of small Italian museums

by Tonino Pencarelli, Emanuela Conti and Simone Splendiani

Heritage, Tourism and Hospitality, International Conference, Amsterdam, November 26-27, 2015


Purpose – The paper offers some reflections that are prevalently theoretic in the aim of proposing a model for enhancing cultural heritage through museum networks, organizational solutions appropriate for contexts – such as the Italian one – where the majority of the facilities are small in size.

Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on an analysis of the prevalent literature on the management of cultural heritage and the marketing of touristic services, combining the theoretic perspective with the participatory observation undertaken by the authors in active projects for the enhancement of the cultural heritage of the Marche region.

Findings – The study has revealed how museum networks represent  a potentially effective organization and management mode of achieving an enhancement of cultural resources that is capable of creating value for the consumers as well as for the stakeholders in a given territory, thus ensuring the survival of single museums thanks to economies of scale that would not be achievable singly.

Originality/value – Museum networks need systemic governance approaches, along the lines of the viable systems approach, capable of guaranteeing the applicability of the principles of marketing management through the common finalization of territorial stakeholders. Moreover, there also emerges the need for a conceptual – besides managerial –  integration between cultural and tourism enterprises, both of which are involved in setting up and proposing multisensory experiences geared towards increasing the value that is perceived by consumers and, through it, the value for all of the territorial stakeholders.

The Sustainable Management of Museums: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence from Marche Region

by Tonino Pencarelli, Mara Cerquetti and Simone Splendiani

Marketing Places and Spaces. Shifting Tourist Flows, 5th Advances in Tourism Marketing Conference, Vilamoura (Portugal), October 2-4, 2013.


The theme of sustainability in museum management has not been sufficiently explored in the international literature as well as few museums are already involved in programs and activities to promote sustainable development (Civita, 2011; Museum Association, 2008).
Considering this gap, the purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, to provide a conceptual model applying the principles of sustainable development to the enhancement of cultural heritage and, secondly, to analyze the case of Marche Region.
The field research aims both at analysing strengths and weaknesses of Regional Museum System and measuring museums’ sustainability orientation, according to the following questions:
– Do policies carried out by Marche Region contribute to the sustainable development of the Regional Diffused Museum System (Sistema Museo Diffuso)? Do these actions contribute to the competitiveness of Marche Region’s cultural attractions?
– Which is museums’ approach to environmental, social and economic sustainability? Which ecological measures have museums already adopted? Are museum networks able to achieve social and economic sustainability and promote new tourism flows?

Marketing museum networks: theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

by Tonino Pencarelli and Simone Splendiani

13th Toulon-Verona Conference (ICQSS), Coimbra (Portugal), September 2-4, 2010.


The aim of this study is to analyze the role of museum networks within the cultural districts.  We use a systemic approach that allows us to study the phenomenon of museum networks as institutions for the conservation and enhancement of Cultural Heritage, but also to study the factors of social and economic development of local contexts in their entirety. This approach involves territorial marketing and cultural network marketing, created either through top-down or grass roots processes, in a logic of subjects’ mutual interest in searching for greater effectiveness and operational efficiency. After a brief literature review on museum networks – aimed at delineating the boundaries of the object of investigation – the study focuses on some experiences from the Marche Region to understand which models of governance and management should be considered and which factors could promote the competitiveness of the networks and territory. The analytical model highlights the need for an integrated approach to marketing capable of combining traditional issues with relationship marketing and internal marketing. The point of departure is to consider museums as service companies in so far as they can profitably use typical instruments of service management in order to increase the quality and value the cultural offerings they have.  This will benefit both users – visitors – for the area  and the cultural district within which the museum network is inserted. The analysis of case studies reveals wide prospects for improvement towards a more relational approach to marketing and to the full adoption of the principles of service management.